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What is Geotextile?

What is Geotextile?

About geotextiles, those who are unfamiliar will have many questions. What is geotextile fabric? (what is geotextile cloth) what is geotextile in civil engineering? What is a geotextile membrane? What is geotextile fabric used for? What is geotextile material? What is geotextile landscape fabric? What is geotextile filter fabric? What is geotextile in road construction? The following articles will answer you one by one.

Geotextile Definition:

Geotextile, also known as geotextile, is a permeable geosynthetic material made of synthetic fibers through needle punching or weaving. Geotextile is one of the new materials and geosynthetics. The finished product is cloth-like, with a general width of 4-6 meters (the specific width can be customized) and a length of 50-100 meters. Geotextiles are divided into woven geotextiles and non-woven filament geotextiles.

geotextile
Geotextile Project

Geotextile Types:

Geotextile has excellent filtering, drainage, isolation, reinforcement, and protection effects, and has the characteristics of lightweight, high tensile strength, good permeability, high-temperature resistance, freezing resistance, aging resistance, and corrosion resistance. The application of geosynthetics originated in the 1950s, and geotextiles have been used in many fields.

The 3 Main Types Of Geotextiles:

  1. Non-Woven Geotextile:
Nonwoven geotextile
Non-Woven Geotextile

Non-woven geotextile has excellent filtering, isolation, reinforcement and protection, high tensile strength, good permeability, high-temperature resistance, freezing resistance, aging resistance, and corrosion resistance.

Non-woven geotextile is made of filaments or short fibers that are laid out into a net through different equipment and processes. After needle punching and other processes, different fibers are interwoven with each other, entangled, and fixed to standardize the fabric and make the fabric soft, It is full, thick, and stiff to achieve different thicknesses to meet the requirements of use. Non-woven geotextiles have good fabric gaps and good adhesion and separation. Because the fibers are soft, they have a certain resistance to tearing and have good deformation adaptability. At the same time, it has a good flat drainage ability. The surface is soft and has a good coefficient of friction. It can increase the adhesion of soil particles. It can prevent fine particles from preventing the loss of particles while removing excess water. The surface is soft and has a very good friction coefficient. Good protection capabilities. According to the length of the filament, it is divided into filament non-woven geotextile or short filament non-woven geotextile. They can play a very good role in filtering, isolation, reinforcement, protection, etc., are used geosynthetic material. The tensile strength of filament is higher than that of short filament, and it can be selected according to specific requirements.

high-quality polyester staple fiber (fiber 4-9dtex, length 50-76mm) can also be produced according to requirements of polypropylene, nylon, nylon or mixed fiber needle punched non-woven geotextile. It has the functions: 1). Isolation; 2). Filter; 3). Drainage; 4). Reinforcement; 5). Protection; 6). Closed. As non-woven geotextile has the above six functions, it can be used in railways, highways, sports venues, dams, hydraulic constructions, tunnels, beaches, reclamation, environmental protection, and other projects.

Features of Non-Woven Geotextile:

The raw materials used are polyester, followed by polypropylene and nylon, with a unit weight of 100-800 g/m². Also, it can be used as a soil-reinforced material to reinforce soft foundations or build light retaining walls. At the same time, it can also reduce the pore water pressure under the embankment. The emergence of non-woven geotextiles is later than that of woven geotextiles. The main production methods of non-woven geotextiles are spun-bonded and needle-punched. The needle-punched method accounts for a larger proportion in my country. East One, Three, Seven, Nine, One. Three one. Two, one ba, ba min. It has been used to solve the problems of roadbed subsidence and mud boiling. It is used in the drainage system of earth-rock dams, underground drainage pipes, soft foundation reinforcement, and the slope protection and shoulder pads of various embankments. Thus, the development of non-woven geotextiles is very fast, and it has become the main component of geotextiles. The non-woven geotextile has large elongation, can adapt to large deformation, can be made into appropriate size pores according to needs, and has good penetration and exudation in both horizontal and vertical directions

2. Woven Geotextile:

Woven geotextile is composed of at least two sets of parallel yarns (or flat yarns). One group is called warp yarn along the longitudinal direction of the loom (the direction in which the fabric travels), and the other group is arranged called weft yarn. The warp yarn and the weft yarn are interwoven into a cloth shape with different weaving and weaving equipment and processes, which can be woven into different thicknesses and densities according to different ranges of use. Generally, spinning geotextiles have strong resistance in both vertical and horizontal directions. Tensile strength (longitude is greater than latitude), with good stability. Woven geotextiles are divided into two categories: reinforced geotextiles and unreinforced geotextiles according to the weaving process and the use of warp and weft. The warp tensile strength of reinforced geotextiles is much greater than that of ordinary geotextiles. The general practical application of woven geotextiles and the reinforcement of geotechnical projects, the main function is reinforcement and reinforcement, with plane isolation and protection functions, without plane drainage function can be selected according to the specific purpose of use.

3. Knitted Geotextiles

Woven geotextile
Knitted geotextiles

Knitted geotextiles have a knitted construction. The knitting technique used to create geotextiles, in a way, includes applying a bit of weaving as well. It requires a certain level of knowledge on a particular form of knitting to bring uniformity, and machine knitting provides this consistency

When needing to reinforce soil, such as for foundation improvement, or in very soft soil conditions such as working in tidal mudflats, Knitted Geotextile may be the answer. This unique construction provides high-strength, excellent elongation characteristics, drainage, filtration, soil separation, isolation, and more.

Geotextile Specifications and Parameters:

Note: Geotextile products of other specifications can be produced according to customer requirements.

Features of Geotextile:

1. High strength. Due to the use of plastic fiber, it can maintain enough strength and elongation in dry and wet conditions.

2. Corrosion resistance, long-term corrosion resistance in soil and water with different pH.

3. Good water permeability, there are gaps between the fibers, so it has good water permeability.

4. Good antimicrobial property, no damage to microorganisms and insects.

5. Convenient construction. Because the material is light and soft, it is convenient to transport, lay and construct.

6. Complete specifications: width up to 9 meters. It is the widest product in China, the mass per unit area: 100-1000g/m2

7. Lightweight, low cost, corrosion resistance, excellent performance such as filter, drainage, isolation, and reinforcement.

The Role of Geotextile:

1: Isolation

Use polyester staple fiber needle-punched geotextile for construction materials with different physical properties (particle size, distribution, consistency, and density, etc.)

Materials (such as soil and sand, soil and concrete, etc.). Prevent two or more materials from being lost or mixed, maintain the structure and function of the geotextile material, and strengthen the load-bearing capacity of the structure.

2: Filter (reverse filter)

When water flows from the fine material soil layer into the coarse material soil layer, the good air permeability and water permeability of the polyester staple fiber needle-punched geotextile are used to make the water flow

Pass, and intercept soil particles, fine sand, small stones, etc., to maintain the stability of water and soil engineering.

3: Drainage

The polyester staple fiber needle-punched geotextile has good water conductivity.

The remaining liquid and gas are discharged outside.

4: Reinforcement

Use polyester staple fiber needle-punched geotextiles to enhance the tensile strength and deformation resistance of the soil, enhance the stability of the building structure, and improve

Good soil quality.

5: Protection

When the water flow scours the soil, it spreads, transmits or decomposes the concentrated stress, prevents the soil from being damaged by external forces, and protects the soil.

6: Anti-puncture

Combined with the geomembrane to form a composite waterproof and impermeable material, it plays a role in preventing puncture.

High tensile strength, good permeability, air permeability, high-temperature resistance, freezing resistance, aging resistance, corrosion resistance, and no insects.

Polyester staple fiber needle-punched geotextile is a used geosynthetic material. used in the reinforcement of railway subgrades and highway pavements

Maintenance, sports halls, protection of dams, isolation of hydraulic structures, tunnels, coastal beaches, reclamation, environmental protection, and other projects.

Geotextile Use:

used in geotechnical engineerings such as water conservancy, electric power, mines, highways, and railways:

1. Filter material for soil layer separation;

2. Drainage materials for reservoirs and mines beneficiation, and drainage materials for foundations of high-rise buildings;

3. Anti-scouring materials for river dams and slope protection;

4. Reinforcement materials for railway, highway, and airport runway foundations, and reinforcement materials for road construction in swamp areas;

5. Anti-frost and anti-freeze insulation materials;

6. Anti-cracking material for asphalt pavement.

Geotextile Landscape Fabric Factory
Geotextile Factory

Geotextile Application Fields:

(1) Used as reinforcement in the backfill of the retaining wall, or used to anchor the panel of the retaining wall. Build a wrapped retaining wall or abutment.

(2) Reinforce flexible pavement, repair cracks on the road, and prevent reflection cracks on the pavement.

(3) Increase the stability of gravel slopes and reinforced soil to prevent soil erosion and freezing damage to the soil at low temperatures.

(4) The isolation layer between the road ballast and the roadbed, or the isolation layer between the roadbed and the soft foundation.

(5) The isolation layer between artificial fill, rockfill, or material yard and foundation, and isolation between different frozen soil layers. Anti-filtration and reinforcement function.

(6) The filter layer of the initial upstream dam surface of the ash storage dam or tailings dam, and the filter layer of the drainage system in the backfill of the retaining wall.

(7) The filter layer around the drain concealed pipe or the gravel drainage ditch.

(8) The filter layer of water wells, relief wells, or inclined pressure pipes in water conservancy projects.

(9) Geotextile isolation layer between roads, airports, railway roads, artificial rockfills, etc., and the foundation.

(10) Vertical or horizontal drainage inside the earth dam, buried in the soil to dissipate the pore water pressure.

(11) Drainage behind the anti-seepage geomembrane in the earth dam or embankment or under the concrete protective surface.

(12) Drop the water seepage around the tunnel, reduce the external water pressure on the lining, and the water seepage around the buildings.

(13) Drainage of filled soil foundation sports ground foundation.

(14) Highways (including temporary roads), railways, embankments, earth-rock dams, airports, sports fields, and other projects are used to strengthen weak foundations.

Laying of Geotextile:

The geotextile roll should be protected from damage before installation and unfolding. Geotextile rolls should be stacked in a flat place with no water, and the height of the stack should not exceed the height of four rolls, and the identification film of the roll can be seen. Geotextile rolls must be covered with opaque materials to prevent UV aging. In the storage process, the integrity of the label and the integrity of the data should be maintained. During transportation (including on-site transportation from the material storage site to the worksite), the geotextile roll must be protected from damage.

Geotextile rolls that have been damaged must be repaired. Geotextiles that are worn cannot be used. Any geotextile in contact with leaking chemical reagents is not allowed to be used in this project.

The Laying Method of Geotextile:

1. Use manual rolling, the cloth surface should be flat, and the deformation allowance should be left.

2. The installation of filament or short-filament geotextile usually uses lap, stitch, and welding methods. The width of stitching and welding is generally more than 0.1m, and the width of overlap is generally more than 0.2m. Geotextiles that may be exposed for a long time should be welded or stitched together.

3. Stitching of geotextile:

All stitching must be performed (for example, spot stitching is not allowed). Before overlapping, the geotextile must overlap at least 150mm. The least stitch distance from the selvage (the exposed edge of the material) is at least 25mm.

The seams of the sewn geotextile include a one-line chain stitching method. The thread used for stitching should be a resin material with the least tension of more than 60N and have chemical resistance and UV resistance equal to or exceeding that of geotextile.

Any “drop stitches” on the sewn geotextile must be re-sewn in the affected area.

Corresponding measures must be taken to prevent soil, particulate matter, or foreign matter from entering the geotextile layer after installation.

The cloth overlap can be divided into natural overlap, seam, or welding according to the terrain and usage function.

4. During construction, the geotextile on the geomembrane is lapped, and the geotextile on the upper layer of the geomembrane is sewn or welded by hot air. Hot-air welding is the preferred method of connecting filament geotextiles, that is, using a hot air gun to heat the two pieces of cloth at high temperature to make part of it melt, and immediately use a certain external force to make it bond together. When hot bonding is not possible in wet weather (rainy and snowy days), the geotextile should adopt another method—the stitching connection method, which is to use a special sewing machine for double-thread suture connection and use chemical UV-resistant sutures.

The least width for stitching is 10cm, the least width for natural overlap is 20cm, and the least width for hot air welding is 20cm.

5. For the seaming, use suture threads of the same quality as geotextiles, and use materials that are more resistant to chemical damage and ultraviolet light.

6. After the geotextile is laid, the geomembrane will be laid after approval by the on-site supervision engineer.

7. The geotextile on the geomembrane is laid on the same as above after the geomembrane is approved by Party A and the supervisor.

8. The geotextiles of each layer are numbered TN and BN.

9. The two layers of geotextile on the upper and lower layers of the membrane should be buried in the anchor groove together with the geomembrane where there are anchoring grooves.

geotextile
Geotextile manufacturer

The Basic Requirements of Geotextile Laying:

1. The joint must intersect the slope surface line; where it is balanced with the slope foot or where stress may exist, the distance between the horizontal joint must be greater than 1.5m.

2. On the slope, anchor one end of the geotextile, and then put the coiled material down on the slope to ensure that the geotextile remains in a tight state.

3. All geotextiles must be held down with sandbags. The sandbags will be used during laying and will be reserved for the layer of material on top of laying.

Geotextile Laying Process Requirements:

1. Basic level inspection: Check whether the basic level is flat and solid. If there are foreign objects, handle them.

2. Trial paving: Determine the size of geotextile according to the site conditions, and try to pave it after cutting. The cutting size should be accurate.

3. Check whether the width of the Sarah is appropriate, the overlap should be flat and the tightness should be moderate.

4. Positioning: Use a hot air gun to bond the overlapping parts of the two geotextiles, and the spacing of the bonding points should be appropriate.

5. When stitching the overlapping parts, the sutures should be straight and the stitches should be even.

6. After stitching, check whether the geotextile is laid flat and whether there are defects.

7. If there is a phenomenon that does not meet the requirements, it should be repaired in time.

Self-Inspection and Repair of Geotextile:

a. All geotextile pieces and seams must be checked. Defective geotextile pieces and stitches must be marked on the geotextile and repaired.

b. The worn geotextile must be repaired by laying and connecting small pieces of geotextile. The small pieces of geotextile must be at least 200mm longer than the edge of the defect in all directions. The thermal connection must be controlled to ensure that the geotextile patch and the geotextile are combined, and there is no damage to the geotextile.

c. Before the end of each day of laying, inspect the surface of all the geotextiles laid that day to confirm that all damaged places have been marked and repaired immediately, and make sure that the laying surface is free of foreign substances that may cause damage, such as fine needles and small iron. Nails and so on.

d. The following technical requirements should be met when repairing geotextile damage:

e. The patch material used to fill holes or cracks should be the same as the geotextile.

f. The patch should extend at least 30 cm beyond the damaged geotextile.

g. At the bottom of the landfill, if the crack in the geotextile exceeds 10% of the width of the coil, the damaged part must be cut off, and then the two geotextiles must be connected; if the crack exceeds 10% of the width of the coil on the slope, it must be Remove the roll of geotextile and replace it with a new roll.

h. The work shoes and construction equipment worn by the construction personnel should not damage the geotextile, and the construction personnel must not do things that may damage the geotextile on the laid geotextile, such as smoking or poking the geotextile with a sharp tool.

i. For the safety of geotextile materials, the packaging film should be opened before laying the geotextile, that is, one roll is laid and one roll is opened. And inspect the appearance quality.

j. It is especially pointed out that the geotextile will be inspected and approved in time after it arrives at the site.

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