Geotextile is a new type of construction material prescribed by the state for civil engineering. Geotextiles can be divided into woven geotextiles, knitted geotextiles, and non-woven geotextiles according to different processing methods.
The functions of geotextiles as building materials are multi-faceted. The following basic functions and applications have been recognized by experts, designers, and manufacturers.
Separation effect: Geotextile can prevent the mixing of two kinds of soil materials with different particle sizes, so on avoid mixing with each other or soil particle loss. This function is very useful for building a road or railway foundations on soft soil layers. Many construction cases show that in some conditions it is impossible to build on such foundations without geotextiles, as the filling material would sink into the subsoil. Thus, it is the cheapest and most effective way to apply the geotextile during construction.
Filtration effect: The use of geotextile as a filter layer is the same as that of a graded gravel layer. Geotextiles can allow water to flow without pressure but can prevent the loss of soil fines, so on avoid inconvenience in some projects like stabilization and erosion, such as in hydraulic structures, river and lake bank embankments are affected by wave impact or wave water level changes, which will reduce stability due to soil erosion. It can prevent soil erosion and prevent river banks from collapsing.
Drainage function: The geotextile itself could form a drainage channel, collect the moisture in the soil into the fabric then discharge the soil along the fabric so that we can build roads in soft soil areas with high water content. The geotextile is inserted into the soil, and the groundwater flows out of the ground along the geotextile column and enters the permeable sand layer or excludes the subgrade.
Reinforcement: The geotextile is sandwiched in the aggregate-geotextile-soil foundation system, which can disperse the vehicle load to a larger area and reduce the pressure of the load on the soil foundation. Under the action of the load, the soft soil foundation is deformed. The geotextile is deformed and embedded in the soil foundation because of a certain degree of toughness and elongation, so that the whole system forms a continuous structure, improves the stability of the structure, and improves the bearing capacity of the soil foundation.
Seeing the development of the mining industry.
Mineral resources are the product of the long-term formation, development, and evolution of the earth’s crust, and are formed by the accumulation of natural minerals under certain geological conditions and through certain geological actions. Different geological processes can form different types of minerals. Global mining distribution overview
There are about 80 kinds of minerals that are used in the world, including 9 kinds of iron, copper, soil, lead, zinc, nickel, salt, tin, and manganese, which have the characteristics of large output value and large international trade volume. important. The concentration of mineral mining in the world is obvious, with 70 to 75% concentrated in more than 10 countries, especially a few industrialized developed countries.
Russia and the United States are two of the world’s largest industries, and Australia and South Africa have large mining industries. In developing countries, China, Chile, Zambia, Zaire, Peru, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina have developed large-scale mining industries.
In the face of the global outbreak of COVID-19 at the beginning of 2020, the IMF and the World Bank predicted that the global economy would shrink by 4.9% and 5.2% in 2020. The downturn in the global economy will restrict the demand for mineral products in the development of related industries.
The epidemic will slow down the growth rate of downstream industries that consume mineral products. Due to the different impacts of the epidemic on different industries, the consumption of mineral products transmitted upstream will also be different. Among them, the decline in manufacturing, transportation, and other industries will lead to a decline in the demand for major mineral products such as oil, iron, copper, and aluminum.
The epidemic has boosted financial risk aversion, and precious metal prices have reached new highs. Minerals with large agricultural uses such as potassium and phosphorus should fluctuate in the short term, and the annual consumption demand is expected to be stable. Also, in 2020, affected by the political instability, the escalation of land-source conflicts, digital technology innovation, and uncertainty of product prices, the global demand for mineral products will generally decline 2020.
The operating efficiency of global mining companies has fallen, and some companies are still losing money
After the sharp decline in mineral products in previous years, the global mining industry is recovering. Since 2017, the combined operating income of the world’s top ten mining companies has increased. In 2018, the combined operating income of the world’s top ten mining companies was US$428.4 billion. In 2019, the total operating income of the top ten mining companies was US$425 billion (US$252.6 billion excluding the Glencore trading part), a slight decrease of 0.8% compared with 2018 (a slight increase of 0.2% excluding the Glencore trading part), maintaining the same level since 2015 next level.
Although the prices and production of metal mineral products have generally declined, the increase brought by the sharp rise in the prices of iron ore and gold has made up for the income gap caused by the decline in the volume and price of other commodities, highlighting the fact that the two are in the metal and mineral product market. an important position in.
As far as specific companies are concerned, Barrick Gold’s operating income in 2019 increased by 15%, Rio Tinto and Anglo American’s operating income increased by around 7%, and Vale and Mexico Copper’s operating income increased by about 2%.
Although both are gold companies, Newmont Mining’s operating income in 2019 decreased by 5.3% compared with that of Newmont and Canadian Gold in 2018, which was affected by the large-scale asset divestiture after the restructuring. Among the ten companies, Freeport Group’s operating income has fallen, dragged down by the double drop in copper production and prices.
Omit profits, as of June 30, 2020, the three international iron ore giants, Vale, Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton, Buck Gold, and Newmont have all achieved profits. Vale turned losses into profits, while Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton’s net profits declined year on year.
More and more countries attach importance to strategic mineral resources. Developed economies such as the United States and the European Union have established catalogs of key minerals, relaxed policy restrictions, and expanded domestic supply. Congo (Kinshasa) and Zambia listed helpful minerals in the strategic mineral catalog and increased the ratio of mining rights and interests.
Environmental protection and sustainable development have become the general trend in the development of the world chemical industry, and become the main driving force to promote the upgrading of chemical products and technologies. Through the implementation of friendly process technology, emphasis on environmental protection investment, energy conservation and consumption reduction, rational use of existing resources, and improvement of environmental quality; to create more wealth for the whole society, and protect the global environment. HDPE film is a high-performance anti-seepage and anti-corrosion product, especially its chemical resistance, acid and alkali resistance, salt, heavy oil, high and low-temperature resistance, and good molecular stability. The best product for anti-seepage and landfill of chemical solid waste.
The geotextile can be played several layers under the geomembrane layer to protect the HDPE liners to make it longer service life. The manufacturers are supplying PP and PET materials for the geotextiles. Geotextiles have excellent filtration, drainage, isolation, reinforcement, and protection functions, and have the characteristics of lightweight, high tensile strength, good permeability, high-temperature resistance, freezing resistance, aging resistance, and corrosion resistance.
1. Needle-punched non-woven geotextile, the specifications are selected between 100g/m2-600g/m2, the main raw material is polyester staple fiber or polypropylene staple fiber, made by acupuncture method, the main uses are: river, sea, lake, and river Slope protection of embankments, land reclamation, docks, ship locks, flood control, and emergency rescue projects are effective ways to conserve soil and water and prevent piping through bank filtration.
2. Acupuncture non-woven and PE film composite geotextile, the specifications are one cloth and one film, two cloths and one film, the largest width is 4.2 meters. The main raw material is polyester staple fiber needle-punched non-woven fabric, and PE film is made by compounding, The main purpose is anti-seepage, suitable for railways, highways, tunnels, subways, airports, and other projects.
3. Non-woven and woven composite geotextiles, varieties of non-woven and polypropylene filament woven composite, non-woven, and plastic woven composite, suitable for basic engineering facilities for foundation reinforcement and change of permeability coefficient.
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