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Geotechnical Industry-Related Knowledge

Geosynthetics refers to various natural or synthetic polymer products that are applied in the field of civil engineering through contact with soil, rocks, or other geotechnical engineering materials. The current national standard “Technical Specifications for the Application of Geosynthetics” divides them into 4 categories: geotextiles, geomembranes, geocomposites, and geotechnical special materials.

Geotextiles are made of fibers or yarns through weaving, weaving, or non-woven methods. Water-permeable materials are classified according to their manufacturing methods. They can be divided into woven and non-woven, or woven and non-woven; geomembranes are water-impermeable membrane materials prepared by extrusion and blow molding using plastic or rubber as raw materials, including plastics and rubber geomembranes. Plastics include polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Co-clustering (EVA), etc. Rubbers include chloroprene rubber (CR), butyl rubber (HR), etc.; geocomposites are composed of two or more different geosynthetics. A class of materials, including composite geomembrane (geotextile-geomembrane), composite drainage board (geotextile-geonet), etc.; geotechnical special materials include geogrid (one-way, two-way or three-way), geonet Mat (three-dimensional), geotechnical mold bag (mortar type, concrete type), foamed geotechnical material (molded type, extruded type), etc.

The standardization level of the industry can reflect its technical level. At present, China’s geosynthetic material standards are formulated with reference to the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), including national standards, transportation, water conservancy, urban construction, building materials, textiles, light industry, railways, and electric power industries. Standards, as well as a small number of local standards, will be formulated or transformed into many group standards in the future. These standards include a large number of product standards and method standards, as well as a small number of technical specifications and terminology standards. In general, China’s geosynthetic material standards cover the product categories used in engineering and related test methods (see Table 1).

At present, the main problems in China’s geosynthetic material standards are: whether it is technical specifications, product standards or method standards, the number is far behind foreign countries, the standard types are small, and the degree of detail is not enough; the supporting standards for special products and new products are not prepared in time , Affecting the use and promotion of the project; some existing product standards are not updated in time, technical indicators and classifications are unreasonable, unable to adapt to the status quo of the industry; various industry standards are overlapping and chaotic, and methods and indicators are unreasonable, which brings difficulties to enterprise quality control; partly The lack of test methods and inapplicability have resulted in only reference to foreign standards for testing or inaccurate test data; some standards have unclear requirements for test equipment and procedures, and there is a large gap in the technical level of equipment and personnel used by institutions with testing capabilities, which affects the test results.

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